1977 Senate Hearing
The History of Torture in the US

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MKULTRA took place from 1953 to 1964
-Umbrella-project under which there were numerous subprojects for research
on drugs and behavior modification.
-Destruction of material took place in 1973
-The practice was not to keep detailed records in this category, „no records
of the planning and approval of test programs“.
This contribution was made through an intermediary, which made it appear to be a private donation. As a private donation, the contribution was then matched by Federal funds. The institution was not made aware of the true source of the gift.

-3 categories of projects:
1) 149 MKULTRA subprojects, many have some connection with research into behavioral modification, drug aquisitation and testiing, or admistering drugs surrepitiously.
2) There are two boxes of miscellaneous MKULTRA papers including audio
reports and financial statements for CIA sponsorship
3) 33 additional subprojects concerning certain intelligence activities, which
have nothing to do with behavioral modifications, drugs or toxins...

research into the effects of behavioral drugs and/or alcohol
17 projects not involving human testing, 14 subprojects involving testng human volunteers, 19 subprojects probably testing humans and 6 subprojects involving tests on unwitting human beeings.

23 projects an motivational studies, studies of defectors, assessments
of behavior and training techniques.

For MKULTA projects worked 185 nongovernment researchers and assistants
There are also names of 80 institutions where work was done or which this people were affiliated.

The institutions include 44 colleges or universities, 15 research foundation or chemical or pharmaceutical companies and 12 hospital or clinics and 3 penal institutions


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1977 Senate Hearing on MKULTRA, the CIA´s Program of Research
in Behavioral Modification
Testimony of Admiral Stansfield Turner, Director of Central Intelligence

Senator Kennedy: How bout the nondrug experimentation our Commitee has seen--psychosurgery, for example, or psychlogical research?

Admiral Turner: We are continually involved in what we call
assessment of behavior. For instance, we are traying to continually improve our polygraph proceduresto, you know, assess wehther a person is lying or not. This does not involve any tampering with the individual body.
This involves studying records of people´s behavior under different circumstances, and so on, but it is not an experimental thing. Have I described that accurately, Al?

Mr. Brody: Yes.

Senator Kennedy: Well, it is limited to those areas?

Admiral Turner: Yes; it does not involve attempting to modify behavior. It only involves studying behavior conditions, but not trying to actively modify it, as was one of the objectives of MKULTRA.

Senator Kennedy: Well, we scare on time, but I am interested in the other areas besides polygraph, where you are doing it. Maybe you can
either respond now or submit it for the record, if you would do that.
Would you provide that for the record?

Admiral Turner: Yes.
„Psychological assessments are performed as a service to officers in the operations directorate who recruit and/or handle agents. Except for people involved in training courses, the subject of the assessments are foreign nationals. The assessments are generally done to determine the most successful tactic to persuade the subject to accept convert employment by the CIA, and to make an appraisal of his reliability and truthfulness.
A majority of the work is done by a staff or trained psychologist. The assessments they do may be either direct or indirect. Direct assesssments involve a personal interview of the subject by the psychologist. When pssible the subject is asked to complete a formal „intelligence test“ which is actually a disguised psychological test.....when operating conditions are such that a face-to-face interview is not possible, the psyvchologist may do in indirect assessment, using as source materials descriptions of the subject by others, interviews with people who know him, specimens of his writings etc....
The psychologists also give courses in psychological assesssment to group of operations officer, to sharpen their own capacibilities to size up people.
As part of the training course, the instructor does a psychological assessment
of each student. the students are writing participants, and results are discussed with them.
It is important to reiterate that psychological assessments are only a service
to the operations officers. In the final analysis, it is the responsibility of the operations officer to decide how a potential agent should be approached,
or make a judgment as to wheter any agent is telling the truth.“

Admiral Turner: The kind of thing we are interested in is, what will motivate a man to become an agent to the United States in a difficult situation.
We have to be familiar with that kind of attitudinal response that we can expect from people we approach to for one reason or another become our spies, but I will be happy to submitt a very secific listing of these.


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(Note: The dates and approximate times of visits to Dr. Abramson are added here
to clarify Dr. Abramson's following statement.

Tuesday, November 24
(a) With patient and two
friends, in New York office, about 4:45 to 5:00 P.M.

(b) With patient alone, in New York office, about 5:00 to 6:00 P.M.

(c) With patient andtwo friends, in hotel room, about 10:00 to 11:00 P.M. Wednesday, November 25
With patient alone, in New York office, about 4:00 to 5:00.

Thursday November 26
(a) With patient alone, in Huntington, Long Island, office, about 4:00 to 5:00 P.M.

(b) With patient and friend, in Huntington office, about 5:00 to 5:20 P.M.

Friday, November 27
With patient and friend, in New York office, about 9:30
A.M. to 12:00 noon, and from about 2:00 to 3:00 P.M.
Again an attempt was made to have the patient state that the was the subject of a plot or was especially persecuted by his friends, but at no time did he speak of any but the highest regard for friends or family. He stated explicitly that he wished to go back home. I saw no way in which this could be prevented, but plans were made for further discussion.

November 26
The patient returned after an agitated trip to Washington and was seen at
4:00 P.M., Thursday, November 26. In this interview, for the first time, the patient showed that he had delusions of persecution. "I feel they were giving me dope to keep me awake." He said that for some weeks the CIA group had been putting something like benzedrine in his coffee. He pointed out he had heard voices the night before and that V's voice told me to "throw it away."
(He had thrown away his wallet). His history definitely indicated he had been delusional at least for weeks, probably months, but that he had been able to operate fairly well, except in crises.
It became apparent that hospitalization was required as soon as possible.

November 27
On Friday morning, November 27, the patient and a friend and the writer discussed in some detail the desirability of hospital treatment, to which the patient had finally agreed. We thought he would like to be near home, andfor this reason a mental institution near Washington was chosen and a room reserved. The hospital could not take the patient that day, and arrangements were made for hospitalization the next day.

The patient has been, according to hisown story, delusional for a long period of time, but operating well in his day by day work. His inordinate guilt feelings, as expressed to me, were specifically related to his pension and disability pay. For this he felt he had to be punished. He himself dated his difficulties to the time when he was retired. It was then that he recalls his extraordinary guilt feelings began, becoming progressively worse, with the specific delusional events
during the preceding months.

2)1 December 1953
MEMORANDUM FOR: Inspector General


1. Pursuant to you request, Dr. Willis Gibbons, Chief TSS, was contacted on the evening of 30 November1953 concerning pointshereinafter noted.

2. Dr. Gibbons has impounded all LSD material in CIA Headquarters in a safe adjacent to his desk. No one else has the combination to this safe;the material was so impounded on 29 November 1953.

3. Dr. Gibbons stated that he is stopping any LSD tests which may have been instituted or contemplated under CIA auspices. A cable will be sent to the field on 1 December 1953 to this effect.

4. Only two (2) field stations, Manila and Atsugi, have LSD material. There is none in Germany although Mr. William Harvey recently expressed interest in the subject. A cable to the field on 1 December will instruct the field as to non-use and request data as to how much is on hand and who has custody and access.

5. CIA has furnised a limited quantity of LSD to Mr. George White, Chief of New York District, Narcotics Division, Treasury Department. Dr. Gibbons does not now know the exact amount in Mr. White's possession. White
is fully cleared according to Dr. Gibbons.

6. In summary, LSD material over which CIA has or had distributive responsibility is located in four places:
(a) Dr. Gibbons' safe, (b) Manila, (c) Atsugi, and (d) that in possession of George White. Exact amounts in each location are not yet available.

7. There are several "grants in aid" units and individuals in the United States doing research with LSD. None of these received material from CIA; some know of the CIA interest and furnish reports to CIA. Only volunteers are used. While some of the work is done with knowledge of CIA interest, it does not appear to be done under the auspices of CIA.

8. Dr. Gibbons said there is very little or no correspondence, either internal or external on the subject, but that he would collectg such as existed for
the Inspector General.

9. Dr. Gibbons was also asked to collect and have carried to the Inspector General all reports on the use and effects of LSD. He thought by this definition he wold have a drawer full of reports.

10. Dr. Gibbons was asked to prepare alist of known clinical grants in aid units and individuals in this country engaged in LSD research. it appears that Dr. Abramson has experimented with this drug.

11. Dr. Gibbons was not clear as to the mechanics of CIA acquision of LSD but said he would get the answers. This material is not under Federal U.S. Governmental control to the best of his knowledge. It is an experimental
drug, and as such, is not allowed to be sold in this country. Most LSD obtained by CIA comes from the Eli Lily Company with head offices in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Dr. Gibbons thought some might have been obtained from other parties but he was not certain. The Eli Lily Company apparently makes a gift of it to CIA. Dr.Gibbons was not certain whether the company brought it here, to a cut-out arrangement, or whether it is picked up in Indianapolis. The manner of receipting for the material is not clear.

12. Answers to the questions asked by the Inspector General which are not given by the above are being obtained by Dr. Gibbons and will be furnished as soon as he is able to get them to this Staff.

Chief, Inspection and Review
Distribution: Orig. & 1: addressee
1: I&R file

1 December 1953

SUBJECT: Conversation with
Chief of TSS re Olsen Case

1. All LSD is in Chief's safe for which he only has combination.

2. Preparing cables to field to find out who has custody and access. Issuance done only with Chief's concurrence and use only with DD/P approval. Senior military officer wanted work broadened to include biological as well as chemical.

5. Acquisition. Not classified as narcotic--organic chemical. Don't purchase it--because an experimental can't be sold in U.S. Has been doled out by a foreign company. With one exception LSD has been given to us.
An American company has given us some.

6. Correspondence and memorandum. Don't believe an reports addressed to Agency. DD/P has one memo on subject.

8. CIA officer has discussed use of something of this type with experts from Camp Dietrich and they had all agreed that an unwitting experiment would be desirable.
The LSD was given to all of the ten at the camp except one (who doesn't drink) and one other who has a heart condition, both of Camp Dietrich. About 20 minutes after giving the dose the CIA officer them what they had been given. They all agreed that it was an interesting experiment and there was no adverse comment. Only after Olsen committed suicide was there any reaction adversely to the experiment itself.

9. According to Chief TSS, Olse has a history of mental disturbances.
Last summer he apparently told his wife that he was upset and she suggested he see a doctor. he objected to being made division chief because of a fear
he couldn't do the job, and after reciving the job shortly thereafter asked to be relieved. On the Monday following the experiment he told his Army chief that
he expected to be fired or asked to resign. he then went up
to New York with the TSS employee and saw the psychiatrist.
After several trips between New York and Washington, the psychiatrist finally came to the conclusion that Olsen should go to a sanitarium. On Friday night, November 27, Olsen at dinner with the TSS emplyee in New York appeared to
be completely rational and discussed the time they would have to get up in the morning to get the train, etc.

Inspector General


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The History of Torture in the US
The use of interrogation techniques using torture by United States intelligence agencies and the military were not revealed for the first time in 2004. They are not new. The paper trail dates back over one-half a century to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and the CIA in the 1940s.

Experiments using chemicals to extract a confession began in the 1940s. The OSS began a search for a mind-control hallucinogen known as a “truth drug” (TD) in 1942. The OSS first conducted experiments with mescaline but soon thereafter rejected that drug as a TD.

Next, the OSS used an extremely high concentration of marijuana that could be injected into any type of food. The OSS reported: “TD appears to relax all inhibitions and to deaden the areas of the brain which governs the individual’s discretion and caution. It accentuates the senses and makes manifest any strong characteristics of the individual.” The OSS tested TD on themselves, their associates, and American military personnel. The results were mixed.

After World War II, the OSS evolved into the CIA. This new agency continued where the OSS had left off in the search for a new truth serum. They did further experiments with mescaline as well as with the extract of peyote cactus which produced hallucinations. These experiments were terminated in 1953. (William Blum, The CIA: A Forgotten History)

Beginning in 1949, the CIA funneled money into Project Bluebird that was operated out of the Technical Services Division. Secret experiments with LSD were originally dubbed MK-Naomi, and then the code-name was changed to MK-ULTRA in April 1953. “MK” was the code for “Technical Services” and “Naomi” referred to the agency secret project to develop poisons. MK-ULTRA was operated by Sidney Gottlieb, a former Nazi doctor who was recruited after World War II.
CIA chemists and psychiatrists studied LSD-25, a derivative of lysergic acid. The CIA’s first test was on 12 subjects. A CIA psychiatrist told them that “a new drug was being tested and promised that nothing serious or dangerous would happen to them.” They were injected with 150 micrograms of LSD and were then the subject of a mock interrogation. Subsequent tests were conducted on unknowing CIA officials.
(William Blum, The CIA: A Forgotten History)

Top-secret “Bluebird” was a “behavior-modification” program jointly undertaken with the Pentagon. Bluebird was a continuation of a Nazi program that had been conducted at Dachau concentration camp. CIA scientists, many of whom were former Nazis, used human guinea pigs at the Pentagon’s chemical warfare base in Edgewood, Maryland.

The first operations under Bluebird were conducted in Japan three months after the new operation was launched. Twenty-five North Korean war prisoners were given depressants and stimulants, then injected with barbiturates, hypnotized, and finally interrogated. In other experiments, CIA scientists used intensive polygraph testing and the stimulants Benzedrine and Picrotoxin.

Bluebird also included experiments in electro-shock therapy and psycho-surgery. In an effort to induce amnesia for varying lengths of time. At a Richmond, Virginia hospital, an “electro-sleep” machine was used on various patients to induce sleep without shock or convulsions.

Gottlieb also conducted experiments into Canada in the 1950s. As part of the Society for Investigation of Human Ecology (SIHE), Dr. Ewen Campbell used electroshock and the use of hallucinogens. The goal was to “depattern” both normal and abnormal behavior by creating temporary amnesia. Subjects were bombarded with continuous taped messages and sensory deprivation, and they were injected with LSD.

Electro-shock treatments consisted of waking a patient three times during the night and administering several drugs, changing around the quantities of each until he thought he achieved the best results. Patients were given 100 milligrams of Thorazine, 100 milligrams of Nembutal, 100 milligrams of Seconal, 150 milligrams of Veronal, and 10 milligrams Phenergan. Subjects were also given electro-shock treatments that consisted of a dose of 110 volts, lasting a fraction of a second. The power was increased to 150 volts that caused major convulsions.

In 1953, Dr. John Lilly of the National Institutes of Health, devised a method of placing 600 tiny sections of hypodermic tubing in the skulls of monkeys. Then he inserted electrodes inside the tubes and ran them to the monkeys’ brains. Using electricity, Lilly discovered precise areas of the brains that caused pain, anxiety, fear, and anger.

The next year, Lilly isolated the operations of the brain -- not by electrodes -- but through sensory deprivation. He invented a special “tank” which was filled with body-temperature water. Subjects were submerged in the water and breathed through tubes. They were deprived of sight and sound. Some subjects were injected with LSD before they were placed in the sensory-deprivation tanks. (William Blum, The CIA: A Forgotten History)

In late 1952, the top secret Bluebird operation was changed to “Artichoke” Under the direction of Richard Wendt of the Psychology Department at the University of Rochester, narco-hypnosis was used as a tool to extract confessions. Psychiatrists first tried experiments by injecting a sedative or a hallucinogenic drug into the subject and then attempting to induce a trance state of mind. When the subject reached a “twilight zone,” he was interrogated. An intravenous hookup was inserted in both arms and was operated by the interrogator. Thus, the subject’s state of mind could be regulated between a state of consciousness and unconsciousness.

Other experiments included the use of the depressant Seconal, the stimulant Dexedrine, and Tetrahydrocannabinol -- the active ingredient in marijuana. (William Blum, The CIA: A Forgotten History)

Con Son Prison in South Vietnam was located far out in the South China Sea. It was the largest South Vietnamese prison for 9,600 non-combatants. Throughout the war, United States officials claimed the cages did not exist. Frank E. Walton, Director of the United States Public Safety Program Vietnam said about Con Son Prison: “This place is more like a Boy Scout Recreational Camp.” (Edward S. Herman, Atrocities In Vietnam)

The prisoners at Con Son were incarcerated in tiger cages were deep, dank concrete pits, four by nine feet; each held three to five prisoners. Steel grates covered the top of each pit. Prisoners lay shackled to the concrete floors where they were beaten by guards. A bucket of lime was kept above the prisoners’ cages, and guards occasionally would throw it onto them as a form of sanitary torture. After months of internment, prisoners would lose the use of their legs, develop tuberculosis, gangrenous feet, and life threatening dysentery. (Edward S. Herman, Atrocities In Vietnam)

On January 28, 1997, the CIA declassified documents that confirmed the agency had taught mental torture and coercion techniques to at least five Latin American security forces in the early 1980s. The documents also alleged to have “repudiated” such training in 1985. (One Wold News Service, W.E.Gutman, June 1997)

The CIA also declassified a Vietnam-era training manual called “KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation -- July 1963.” The manual taught torture, allowing agents to be free to use coercion during interrogation. Approval from headquarters was required if the interrogation is to include bodily harm or “if medical, chemical or electrical methods or materials are to be used to induce acquiescence.” (Gary Cohn, Ginger Thompson, and Mark Matthews, The Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1997)

KUBARK included a list of interrogation techniques, including threats, fear, “debility, pain, heightened suggestibility and hypnosis, narcosis (use of drugs), and induced regression.” It described the effectiveness of arresting suspects early in the morning, keeping prisoners blindfolded, and taking away their clothes. (Gary Cohn, Ginger Thompson, and Mark Matthews, The Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1997)

A passage on preparing for an interrogation read: “If a new safehouse is to be used as the interrogation site, it should be studied carefully to be sure that the total environment can be manipulated as desired. For example, the electric current should be known in advance, so that transformers or other modifying devices will be on hand if needed.” (Gary Cohn, Ginger Thompson, and Mark Matthews, The Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1997)

The CIA also administered hallucinogenic drugs while interrogating some of the suspects. In one experiment, three prisoners were given an anesthetic and their skulls were opened. Doctors placed electrodes in different parts of their brains and were observed by CIA psychiatrists who hoped that they would attack one another. The experiment failed; the electrodes were removed and used for subsequent tests; and the prisoners were shot and their bodies were burned.

Operation Phoenix. In the mid-1960s, the CIA developed the Phoenix Program under agents Shackley and Clines, who had been operating in Laos to destabilize that government in the 1960s. CIA chief William Colby admitted that between 1968 and 1971 the United States with the aid of the South Vietnam government killed 20,587 suspects who were believed to have cooperated with the National Liberation Front (NLF) and Viet Cong. The South Vietnamese government credited the Phoenix Program with killing 40,994 suspects.

According to the official United States report, the intelligence-military-police (US-GVN) stated that they had succeeded in "neutralizing" some "84,000 Viet Cong infrastructure" with 21,000 killed. Local officials decided to kill 80 percent of the suspects, but American advisers convinced them to publicly state that only 50 percent had been killed. A United States intelligence adviser stated that when he arrived in the Mekong Delta, he was given a list of 200 names of people to be killed. When he left six months later, 260 had been killed. However, none of the suspects, whom he had named, was on that list.

The Phoenix raids employed the services of the Khmer Kampuchean Kram (KKK) which consisted of anti-communist Cambodians and drug smugglers. This death squad was a favorite of Nixon. When there was a move to terminate funding, Nixon objected, the funds were promptly restored, and the indiscriminate murders continued.

The CIA also administered hallucinogenic drugs while interrogating some of the suspects. In one experiment, three prisoners were given an anesthetic and their skulls were opened. Doctors placed electrodes in different parts of their brains and were observed by CIA psychiatrists who hoped that they would attack one another. The experiment failed; the electrodes were removed and used for subsequent tests; and the prisoners were shot and their bodies were burned.

KUBARK became a basis for the 1983 manual. The 1983 CIA manual, entitled “Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual,” taught foreign agents the art of extracting information from people without yanking out their fingernails, burning the soles of their feet with the business end of a lit cigarette or hanging them from meat hooks. Other torture methods included stripping suspects naked and keeping them blindfolded. The manual said interrogation rooms should be windowless, dark and soundproof, with no toilet. (One Wold News Service, W.E.Gutman, June 1997; Gary Cohn, Ginger Thompson, and Mark Matthews, The Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1997)

These techniques were taught during President Reagan’s administration, when CIA-trained armed forces were trained in El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Argentina, and Panama. The tactics were also employed by the Contras in Nicaragua and by Costa Rica’s militarized “civil guard.” The CIA-trained forces killed, illegally detained, and tortured suspects, most of them civilians, during the last decade of the Cold War. The bodies of thousands of the targets were never found. (One Wold News Service, W.E.Gutman, June 1997)

In October 1984, it was revealed that another CIA manual advised the Contras to kidnap and kill elected leftist officials, blackmail citizens, and raze entire villages to the ground. The CIA blamed the manual on an “overzealous freelancer” on its payroll. It neither apologized nor withdrew the manual from circulation. (One Wold News Service, W.E.Gutman, June 1997)

The course consisted of three weeks of classroom instruction followed by two weeks of practical exercises. It included the questioning of actual prisoners by the students.

According to the section entitled “Coercive Techniques” in the 1983 CIA manual:
The CIA advised against “direct physical brutality,” since this would create resentment, hostility, and defiance” in some prisoners. But the manual stated that “if a subject refuses to comply once a threat (of violence) is made, it must be carried out.”

The manual suggested that prisoners be blindfolded, stripped and given a thorough medical examination, “including all body cavities.”

“Torture is an external conflict, a contest between subject and tormentor. The pain which is being inflicted upon [the subject] from outside himself may actually intensify his will to resist. On the other hand, pain which he feels is self-inflicted is more likely to sap his resistance.”

The manual recommended forcing the subject into rigid positions, “such as standing at attention or sitting on a stool for long periods of time,” adding that “the immediate source of pain is not the interrogator but the subject himself.”

The manual suggested that physical and psychological harassment be combined with “persistent manipulation of time -- retarding or advancing clocks, disrupting sleep,” all designed to disorient the subject and subvert his will and to “drive him deeper and deeper into himself until he no longer is able to control his responses in an adult fashion.”

It required prior approval from headquarters of physical torture, electric shocks and the use of psychotropic drugs.

It suggested that the interrogator show the prisoner letters from home to convey the impression that the prisoner’s relatives were suffering or in danger.

The manual cited the results of experiments conducted on volunteers who allowed themselves to be suspended in water while wearing blackout masks. They were allowed to hear only their own breathing and faint sounds from the pipes. The manual said, “The stress and anxiety become almost unbearable for most subjects.”

It suggested creating “hypnotic situations,” using concealed machinery, and offered ways of convincing a subject that he had been drugged. Giving him a placebo “may make him want to believe that he has been drugged and that no one could blame him for telling his story now.”

The manual suggested that prisoners’ cells should have doors of heavy steel. “The slamming of a heavy door impresses upon the subject that he is cut off from the rest of the world.”

A cover sheet placed in the manual in March 1985 cautioned: “The use of force, mental torture, threats, insults or exposure to inhumane treatment of any kind as an aid to interrogation is prohibited by law, both international and domestic; it is neither authorized nor condoned.” The manual also stated, “While we do not stress the use of coercive techniques, we do want to make you aware of them and the proper way to use them.” (Gary Cohn, Ginger Thompson, and Mark Matthews, The Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1997; One Wold News Service, W.E.Gutman, June 1997)

Perhaps the most human rights abuses in the 1980s were conducted by the Honduran unit known as Battalion 316. The methods taught in the 1983 CIA manual and those used by Battalion 316 in the early 1980s showed unmistakable similarities. The manual advised an interrogator to “manipulate the subject’s environment, to create unpleasant or intolerable situations.” (Gary Cohn, Ginger Thompson, and Mark Matthews, The Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1997)

The 1983 manual was altered between 1984 and early 1985 to discourage torture after a furor was raised in Congress and the press about CIA training techniques being used in Central America. Those alterations and new instructions appear in the documents obtained by The Sun, support the conclusion that methods taught in the earlier version were illegal. Gary Cohn, Ginger Thompson, and Mark Matthews, The Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1997)

The School of the Americas in Fort Benning, Georgia trained over 56,000 Latin American soldiers in counterinsurgency skills. The school’s budget was $3 million annually. Some of its graduates included:

Nineteen of the 27 Salvadoran officers implicated in the 1989 massacre of six Jesuit priests at San Salvador’s Central American University.

Four of the five Honduran officers who were accused of organizing a secret death squad in the country.

Six Peruvian officers who were linked to a death squad which murdered nine Lima college students

105 of the 246 Colombian officers who were accused of human rights violations.
General Raoul Cedras who was ousted from Haiti in 1994.
General Hugo Banzer, dictator of Bolivia from 1971 to 1978.
Manuel Noriega of Panama.
Colonel Roberto D’Aubuisson, dictator of El Salvador and a death squad leader who carried out the assassination of Archbishop Oscar Romero of El Salvador in 1980.
The soldiers who raped the American nuns in El Salvador in 1980.
Ten officers who were implicated in the mass killings of 900 peasants at El Mozote in 1981.


siehe auch LSD (The Search for the Manchurian Candidate - Acid Dreams)
- Assessments of Men - Psychologie (Skinner - Operant Conditioning) - MK ULTRA - mind control



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